This Day in History: 1231-08-13

On 13th August 1231, William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey and lord of Sandal, along with the Earls of Kent, Chester, Derby, Aumale and Hereford,  John de Lacy and various clerics and knights of the royal household was at Castle Matilda in the Marches – the lands between English rule and Wales – to witness Simon de Montfort paying homage to King Henry III. The ritualistic exchange (preserved even now in the English posture of prayer symbolizing homage to the heavenly Lord) between Simon and Henry proceeded: ‘ Sire, I become your man in respect to the tenement I hold of you, and I will bear you fidelity and loyalty in life and limb and earthly honour, and I will bear you fidelity against all men.’ Henry replied: ‘And I receive you as my man and will bear you fidelity as my man’ before kissing Simon, who then delivered his oath with his right hand on a sacred object (Bible or relic).